Chat with us, powered by LiveChat COH 608 Case study – A baby experienced life-threatening | acewriters

Case study questions:
1. A baby experienced life-threatening cyanosis and
respiratory symptoms. His parents believed these adverse health effects were
from exposure to a lawn pesticide.
Another baby in the community also experienced the same symptoms after
she was exposed to another lawn that was being sprayed by the same lawn care
company. The parents, families, and children came together and advocated to the
City Council to approve the Pesticide By-Law that would ban the use of
pesticides on lawns and in garden care.
This ban has been approved in a city in Canada, but has not made
movement in the United States.
a. Do you believe laws should be made to change these
exposure levels? Explain why or why not.
b. Who has the responsibility to advocate for children’s
health, in general?
c. Who would have arguments against laws such as a pesticide
ban? Why?
d. Who would have a stake in this decision?

2. Phthalates and BPA can leach from flexible tubing, vinyl
flooring, squeezable plastic toys, vinyl gloves, and carbonless register receipts.
However, the largest source of exposure in humans is through the food supply,
which occurs during processing of canned food, canned beverages, processed
food, meat, and dairy products. Animal studies provide evidence that these
chemicals function like hormones in our bodies and can lead to problems, such
as a version of attention deficit disorder, cancer, reproductive health, and
increased allergies. Federal regulation may be the only way to control
contamination of the food supply by phthalates and BPA.
a. Should we regulate the type of plastic used in food
production and storage in the US? Why or
why not?
b. Would you be willing to pay more for food if you knew it
was safe? If so, how much should people be willing to have to pay more for safe
food, in general?
c. Describe the type of regulation that you would enact and
the level of government that would be held responsible for enforcing it.

3. Fluoride is put into city water, which we drink. The
benefits of fluoride exist primarily in tooth enamel development in
children. While higher than suggested
fluoride levels by the World Health Organization, it has been determined that
permissible levels (approximately 0.8 mg/l) reduce tooth decay and aid in the
retention of calcium to strengthen teeth and bones. Fluoride use in dental caries prevention
efforts have resulted in significant reduction of dental caries in substantial
populations. Alternatively, overexposure to fluoride (greater than
approximately 1 mg/l) has been associated with many adverse health
effects. The most visible physical
defect is enamel fluorosis; the condition is visible through the discernible
brown stains and markings on teeth occurs when enamel covering of teeth fail to
crystallize properly. A study by the
National Research Council, 2006, concluded that severe enamel fluorosis occurs
in 10% of children exposed to fluoride concentrations of 4 mg/l. Additional
health effects have been reported in various studies and include
neurodevelopmental delays in children, dental fluorosis, clinical stage II
skeletal fluorosis, and skeletal factures in both children and adults. Prolonged exposure to high levels of fluoride
can create severe bone abnormalities which present in crippling deformities.
Unfortunately, levels of fluoride are often not monitored or can exceed levels
of 0.8 mg/l.
a. What are fluoride levels in the water you are drinking?
b. Would you change these levels?
c. Would you keep fluoride in the water? Why or why not?

4. Studies have shown that maternal exposure to various
environmental contaminants contributes to congenital defects. For example,
exposure to air pollution can contribute to childhood asthma OR exposure to
chronic low to moderate or acute high levels of radiation can contribute to
stunted growth, deformities, cancer, or abnormal brain function. Pregnant women
are at an increased risk for these hazards, but can be exposed even in cases
when they cannot help it (e.g. living in an urban environment with air
a. What types of precautions can pregnant women take in
order to ensure a healthy baby?
b. If women do not take these precautions, would this be
considered a form of child abuse? Why or
why not?
c. Who is ultimately responsible for these congenital
outcomes (e.g. government, the woman, the husband?) Explain.

5. Population growth has been unprecedented in the last
half-century; during this time-frame, the world population has increased by
approximately 4 billion people, with the strongest growth trends noticeable in
low and middle income countries. Over the last couple decades, the world’s
population grew from 5 to 7.06 billion people. Low to middle income countries
currently account for 80% of the world’s population and 97% of the population
growth. Projected world population growth peaks are projected to occur in the
year 2075 and are estimated to be 8.9 billion. Life expectancy has also
dramatically increased in the last 40 years. Birth to death lifespan range has
improved by approximately 30%. This increased population means more food is needed.
Considering climate, land resources, water availability, and agricultural
output, think about how food needs must be enhanced.
a. Do you think that the world will need more food because
of these changes? If so, how do you
propose to provide it?
b. Is climate change an issue? How so?
c. How does planting and having more agriculture affect the
environment? Which is the most harmful and why?
d. What would be the absolute best solution to this
problem? Be creative.

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