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Question 1 (5 points) Question 1 Unsaved
In the 1970’s the first automated fingerprint identification
systems were developed. They are called:
Question 1 options:

ASFC

AFFC

AFIS

None of the above
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Question 2 (5 points) Question 2 Unsaved
The two layers to friction skin are:
Question 2 options:

Epidermis and Dermis

Inside and Outside

Ulnar and Radial

None of the above
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Question 3 (5 points) Question 3 Unsaved
Friction Skin Identification is an applied science.
Question 3 options:
True
False
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Question 4 (5 points) Question 4 Unsaved
Hermann Welcker conducted the first study into the
permanence of the details of friction ridges, and the study took 34 years.
Question 4 options:
True
False
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Question 5 (5 points) Question 5 Unsaved
Friction skin is permanent and is formed during the 8th
month of fetal life.
Question 5 options:
True
False
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Question 6 (5 points) Question 6 Unsaved
What are the three main regions of the palm?
Question 6 options:

Hypothenar, Thenar, and Regional

Interdigital, Thenar, and Hypothenar

Interdigital, Thenar, and Hyperthenar

Thenar, Regional, and Interregional
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Question 7 (5 points) Question 7 Unsaved
What are the basic tenets of friction skin identification?
Question 7 options:

Friction skin is permanent and unique

None of the above

Friction skin is unique but not permanent

Friction skin is permanent but not unique
Question 8 (5 points) Question 8 Unsaved
What is anthropometry? How is it related to the discipline
of fingerprint evidence?
Question 8 options:
the scientific study of the measurements and proportions of
the human body.
It relates to fingerprint evidence as it involves
measurement of body portion length of
little finger, length of torso designed for the purpose of studying the
variation of human physical characteristics and was quickly adapted to create
an early identification system

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Question 9 (5 points) Question 9 Unsaved
Why do identical twins have different fingerprints? How
would you explain this in words to a jury?
Question 9 options:
This is because minute differences in the mechanical forces
each developing fetus experiences in the uterus as its cells proliferate. Even
twins that develop from one zygote occupy different positions in the womb, and
the variations are enough to make a difference.

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Question 10 (5 points) Question 10 Unsaved
Identify four (4) key contributors to the field of
fingerprint identification; also describe how their contribution has influenced
the discipline.
Question 10 options:

Contributors
1. 1891 –
Vucetich. Juan Vucetich, an Argentine Police Official, began the first
fingerprint files based on Galton pattern types
2. Sir Francis
Galton’s began his study of fingerprints during the 1880s, primarily to develop
a tool for determining genetic history and hereditary traits.
3. Alphonse
Bertillon, director of the Bureau of Identification of the Paris Police, is
responsible for the first criminal identification of a fingerprint without a
known suspect
4. But Adam
Savage and Jamie Hyneman found a way to convert fingerprints lifted from the
hand to a photographic form that the sensor would accept.
5. New York
Civil Service Commission, spearheaded by Dr. Henry P. DeForrest, institutes
testing of the first systematic use of fingerprints in the United States.

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Question 12 (5 points) Question 12 Unsaved
Who published the first book on the science of fingerprints?
What were the book’s most important contributions to understanding
fingerprints?
Question 12 options:
Finger Prints is a book published by Francis Galton through
Macmillan in 1892. It was one of the first books to provide a scientific
footing for matching fingerprints
Major contribution of the book
1. His study of
minutiae in prints provided the
foundation for meaningful comparison of different prints, and he was able
to construct a statistical proof of the uniqueness, by minutiae, of individual
prints.
2. the first
workable fingerprint classification system, which was later adapted by E. R.
Henry for practical use in police forces and other bureaucratic settings.

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Question 13 (5 points) Question 13 Unsaved
Are the prints found on the soles of the feet the same as
those found on fingertips? Why or why not? Who authored a text describing this
phenomenon?
Question 13 options:

The skin on our hands and feet is different.
our fingerprints on each finger and each toe are different
from all your other fingers and toes, and also totally unique to you. They are
ridges and folds of skin, which help with improved sensation and, to a degree,
better grip. Fingerprints are formed from three basic patterns – arches, loops
and whorls – with many patterns being formed from combinations of these

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Question 14 (5 points) Question 14 Unsaved
What Saint Leo Core Value is most applicable to the use of
the Bertillon method for identifying an individual? Can you articulate why this
is so?
Question 14 options:
The techniques of criminal identification used by American
law enforcement today are rooted in the science of anthropometry, which focuses
on the meticulous measurement and recording of different parts and components
of the human body. Generally, law enforcement
believed that each individual had a unique combination of measurements
of different body parts, and comparing these measurements could be used to
distinguish between individuals.

Alphonse Bertillon was a French criminologist who first
developed this anthropometric system of physical measurements of body parts,
especially components of the head and face, to produce a detailed description
of an individual.
The Bertillon system was introduced in the U.S. in 1887 by
R.W. McClaughry, The Bertillon system continued as the dominant criminal
identification method both in the U.S. and Europe for almost three
decades. In 1903, the case of the
“West Brothers” demonstrated the that of the Bertillon system was
inadequate .
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Question 15 (5 points) Question 15 Unsaved
What is meant by the phrase “natural law”? Does it
have an impact on how fingerprints are collected or used as a means of criminal
identification?
Question 15 options:
Natural law refers to the uniqueness of fingerprints
The overall formation of the fingerprint patterns are
influenced by heredity and follow a genetic master plan. The individual ridges
within the overall pattern are affected by their environment during
development.
These environmental influences cause biological variation.
Biological variation is also known as the natural law of variation .Biological
variation results in the random development of the ridges into unique
formations and appearance. Once formed, the ridges are permanent and unique

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Question 16 (5 points) Question 16 Unsaved
In your opinion, what is the significance of Dr.Babler’s
testifying at a Daubert hearing?
Question 16 options:
The government offered two witnesses focusing principally on
the biological aspects of fingerprints. Dr. William Babler, of Marquette
University, testified about the prenatal development of friction ridges,
opining that unique arrangements of friction ridges develop in the womb within
a matter of months after conception.
He also testified to the medical community’s accepted
understanding of the anatomical and cellular bases for the permanence of
friction ridge arrangements
The importance was to ascertain differences on individuals
based on fingerprint structure ,DrBabler stated that the difference even in
twins became clear within months after conception.
Dr.Babler also opined that friction ridge arrangements are
unique and permanent. These propositions were the foundation of the
government’s argument that latent fingerprint identification evidence satisfies
Daubert.

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Question 17 (5 points) Question 17 Unsaved
What is the dermal papillae and why is it important in
fingerprinting?
Question 17 options:
Each ridge of the epidermis
is dotted with sweat pores for its entire length and is anchored to the
dermis by a double row of protuberances,
or papillae. Injuries such as superficial burns, abrasions, or cuts do not
affect the ridge structure or alter the dermal papillae, and the original
pattern is duplicated in any new skin that grows. An injury that destroys the
dermal papillae, however, will permanently obliterate the ridges.
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Question 18 (5 points) Question 18 Unsaved
What major advance in fingerprint technology was pioneered
by Juan Vucetich and Sir Richard Henry? What was the importance of this
advance?
Question 18 options:
Juan Vucetich (1858–1925), an Argentinian police official,
devised the first workable system of fingerprint identification, and pioneered
the first use of fingerprint evidence in a murder investigation.
He soon devised a
useable system to group and classify fingerprints, which he called
dactyloscopy.
began the first fingerprint files based on Galton pattern
types.

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Question 19 (5 points) Question 19 Unsaved
In 1904, a specific event occurred which changed how two
groups viewed fingerprint evidence. What was the event and who were the two
groups? Also, what is the importance of these two groups coming to agreement on
the importance of fingerprint evidence? Is this still relevant today?
Question 19 options:

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On this day, Oct. 28, in 1904, the St. Louis Police
Department became the first U.S. police department to use fingerprinting.
For 30 years prior, law enforcement officials measured bony
parts of the body to identify criminals.But that system pretty much ended in
1903, when a man named Will West was sentenced to the U.S. Penitentiary in
Leavenworth, Kansas. It turned out there was already a prisoner named William
West who had the same bone measurements.
The men were identified as the same person, until
fingerprints were taken and prison officials discovered they were identical
twins.
During the St. Louis World’s Fair in 1904, a British
sergeant from Scotland Yard showed officials from Leavenworth and St. Louis new
fingerprint techniques
It is still relevant today in identifying the difference
between twins

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Question 20 (5 points) Question 20 Unsaved
Why is the West case so important to the fingerprint
discipline? Why were the other methods identified not helpful?
Question 20 options:

For 30 years prior, law enforcement officials measured bony
parts of the body to identify criminals.But that system pretty much ended in
1903, when a man named Will West was sentenced to the U.S. Penitentiary in
Leavenworth, Kansas. It turned out there was already a prisoner named William
West who had the same bone measurements.
The men were identified as the same person, until
fingerprints were taken and prison officials discovered they were identical
twins.
The method used by law enforcement officials to measured bony parts of the body to
identify criminals were not useful in identifying difference in twins who had
similar body parts

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