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ETHC445
Week 1 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March

dq 1

Helen’s Wisdom of
Friends Dilemma (graded)

Helen wants to move to a new community, and
she is applying for a job with a small retail establishment. She is confident
that she is fully qualified and will be able to perform well if she gets the
job. The employer, however, has advertised for someone with three years of
retail experience, and Helen only has two-and-a-half years. She is considering
whether to exaggerate slightly on her resume in order to improve her chances of
getting the job.
Helen asks three friends to offer their advice
on what she should do.
— Henry says, “Go ahead and claim three-and-a-half years of experience;
they’re going to be so happy with your work that by the time they check (if
they ever do) it won’t matter.”
— Jennifer says, “I’m sure you’ll arrive at the best decision on your own;
I’ve always known you to be an honest person.”
— George says, “It is never all right to lie, even when you are unlikely to
get caught and it seems relatively harmless to do so.”
To begin our discussion this week, let’s
discuss some of the following questions:
1. Which of the Three Primary Schools of Ethics is each of Helen’s friends
relying upon?
2. Can you imagine other people using the same approaches to arrive at
different kinds of advice?
3. Do one of these Three Primary Schools of Ethics feel like the style you
usually use already?

dq 2

Study of Ethical
Philosophy (graded)

The study of Ethics and Philosophy is one
which brings many different kinds of “thinkers” together. One
person’s philosophy on Ethics is another person’s philosophy on Evil. We will
be working this term on constructing personal ethical bases and understanding
how Ethical Codes (both personal and professional) are created and followed.
To start us thinking about the different areas
of philosophy and ethics, and how we fit into the different molds or world
views, let’s discuss the differences and similarities between these views.
To do this, let’s look at the role of right and wrong, laws which regulate
behavior, principles vs. morality, and the role of ethics in our society.
To start out we’ll answer some of these
questions and create more of them as we go. Pick one of the following and
respond to your classmates thoughts and views:
1. Do we need ethics if we have laws? Why or
why not?
2. Is it ethical to change our own views of ethics based on the situation we
are in?
3. Can we “legislate” ethics?
4. How does Aristotle’s “virtue
ethics” mirror your ethical view, or how is it different?

ETHC445
Week 2 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

When Siding with the
Majority (graded)

As our opening page states, Mark Twain warned
that “Whenever you find yourself on
the side of the majority, it is time to pause and reflect.”It is
likely that your parents warned you “not to follow the crowd,” or
your school counselors warned you about “peer pressure.”
The United States utilizes a democratic
republic form of government, which espouses the “majority rule” in
many instances. For example, when passing laws, Congress and state Legislators
use majority voting. When electing our officials, the majority rules. But, is
our government unethical?
This week’s thread will look at two or three
“examples” of majority findings or rules.
We will bring new ones in throughout the week, so be sure to visit back at
least every other day and post your thoughts.
Here is our first one for the week:
The great majority of people seem to find nothing objectionable about the use
of commercials in children’s television programming. Yet a distinguished panel
commissioned by the National Science Foundation found reason to disagree. After
reviewing 21 relevant scholarly studies, they concluded:

It is clear from the available evidence that
television advertising doesinfluence
children. Research has demonstrated that children attend to and learn from
commercials, and that advertising is at least moderately successful in creating
positive attitudes toward and the desire for products advertised. The variable that
emerged most clearly across numerous studies as a strong determinant of
children’s perception of television advertising is the child’s age. Research
clearly establishes that children become more skilled in evaluating television
advertising as they grow older, and that to treat all children from 2 to 12 as
a homogenous group masks important, perhaps crucial differences.

Do you think the majority view is correct in
this case? What difference would it make that a majority thinks this way?
Do you think the use of commercials in children’s television programming raises
any ethical questions? Do explain.
Do you wish to place evidence for what you say before your classmates?

dq 2

The Struggle of Good
vs. Evil (graded)

Personal struggles with one’s own tendencies,
desires, lusts, and self-interest have placed people in conflict with other
people and their own communities farther back than any of us can read. We read
about the struggles of others in history — what about ourselves? Yes, us! What
about our experiences of being ourselves?
When we look back in history, we find people
who are not so different from us — struggling with their human nature — and
trying to live ethical lives in whatever way they can do so. They aspire to
live ethical lifes and find themselves failing again and again.
St. Augustine in the 5th Century held that
although we feel free to make choices in life, our true nature as human beings
includes a persistent disregard for what is good. On this view, we are sinners
whose only hope for redemption lies in the gracious love of a merciful deity.
Whatever I do on my own, Augustine would argue, is bound to be wrong; whatever
I do right, must be performed by God through me.
St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th Century brought
Aristotle’s theories back into “vogue,” soon after St. Augustine’s death (if
800 years is soon, that is.) He allowed humanity to have a bit of secularity
along with faith, and his ethics allows for a Natural Law which can be found in
the heart of man. Please be sure
to listen to our Saints’ Debate on the lecture tab before working in this
thread.
So, here we are in the 21st Century with all
the sophistication and technology of the age. Does this account of human nature
fit well with your own experience of human action? That is, do you observe (in
yourself and others) an inclination toward evil instead of toward good? Bring
in examples of scenarios which bolster your view, or which tend to bring your
view (or others) into question.

ETHC445
Week 3 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

Applying the Death Penalty (graded)

First, here is a word of caution. With this discussion comes a
tasking to discuss the death penalty in two ways: first, as an expression of
the social contract, where one person has killed another in a violation of that
other person’s right to peace and safety, and second, as a rules-based function
of the justice system being applied to a difficult situation.
What do you see going on that is a violation
of the Hobbes/Locke social contract idea?
And you might also connect it with any of the Three Schools, plus Aristotle,
that you have read in past weeks—and especially with the rules-based ethics
model.
Here’s the situation: In Manatee County,
Florida, a judge sentenced a man to death—the first time this had happened in
the county for over 19 years. Sentenced to death was a 25-year-old man for the
January 7, 2004, murder of both of his parents by bludgeoning them to death in
their bed with a baseball bat.
Now, with your social contract ethicist hats
on, tell us what you make of this quote by the judge at the sentencing, quoted
from the front page of the November 17, 2007 Bradenton
Herald: “You have not only forfeited your right to live among us,
but under the laws of the state of Florida, you have forfeited the right to
live at all.”
Have at it, good folks. But, rather than
running off with reactions and opinions about the death penalty in general,
please do keep it in the context of our social contract discussion for this
week and also connected with ethics of justice.

dq 2

Living in Our State of
Nature (graded)

Social Contract theorists say that morality
consists of a set of rules governing how people should treat one another that
rational beings will agree to accept for their mutual benefit, on the condition
that others agree to follow these rules as well.

Hobbesruns
the logic like this in the form of a logical syllogism:
1) We are all self-interested,
2) Each of us needs to have a peaceful and cooperative social order to pursue
our interests,
3) We need moral rules in order to establish and maintain a cooperative social
order,

Therefore, self-interest motivates us to establish moral rules.

Thomas Hobbeslooked to the past to observe a primitive “State of Nature” in which
there is no such thing as morality, and that this self-interested human nature
was “nasty, brutish, and short” — a kind of perpetual state of
warfare
John
Lockedisagreed,
and set forth the view that the state exists to preserve the natural rights of
its citizens. When governments fail in that task, citizens have the right—and
sometimes the duty—to withdraw their support and even to rebel. Listen to Locke’s audio on the lecture tab and read his
lecturette to be able to answer this thread.

Locke addressed Hobbes’s claim that the state of nature was the state of war,
though he attribute this claim to “some men” not to Hobbes. He
refuted it by pointing to existing and real historical examples of people in a
state of nature. For this purpose he regarded any people who are not subject to
a common judge to resolve disputes, people who may legitimately take action to
themselves punish wrong doers, as in a state of nature.

Which philosophy do you espouse?
In coming to grips with the two and
considering your experience of society as it is today, think out loud about
what you experiences as the State of Nature, and tell us what you would be
willing to give up in exchange for civil order and personal security?
You might consider what you have already given
up in exchange for security as well as what might be required in coming days.

ETHC445
Week 4 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

Ethics of Controlling Environmental
Innovation (graded)

Increasing food supplies are necessary to sustain growing populations
around the world and their appetites for great food, quality products, and
continuous availability.
A great deal of expensive research is invested
in developing technologies to deliver productive agriculture. Horticultural
efforts to breed hybrid crops are seen as far back as history can observe, and
there have been efforts to domesticate improved animals, as well. Gene
splitting was a 1990s technology to improve the health and productivity of farm
crops. With the 21st century have come genetically modified foods (GMF) through
the use of nanotechnology to cause changes at the genetic and even molecular
levels. These are very expensive technologies, and many new products have been
patented and otherwise protected as proprietary products of intellectual
property.
Drive out to the country during growing
season, and you will see signs identifying that the crop has been grown with a
protected seed that cannot be used to produce retained seed for planting in the
next growing season.
In terms of this week’s TCOs, what ethical
issues are raised by this legal process of patent protection, and how do we see
the primary schools of ethics used in these proprietary measures? What, in this
deontological week and in our learning to date, informs our understanding of
this situation, and what should be done about it?

dq 2

Kant – Accomplice to Crazed Murderer?
(graded)

Kant’s famous First Formulation of the
Categorical Imperative reads:
“Act only according to that maxim whereby you
can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” Kant taught
morality as a matter of following maxims of living that reflect absolute laws.
“Universal” is a term that allows for no exceptions, and what is universal
applies always and everywhere. Lying, for any reason, is universally wrong.
Be sure
to listen to Kant’s audio lecture before posting this week!
So, consider the famous case of the Crazed
Murderer. In your town the Crazed Murderer comes to your door looking for your
friend and wanting to kill him. You know that your friend went home to hide.
What do you tell the murderer? When he leaves and runs up the street to your
friend’s house, what do you do?

ETHC445
Week 5 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

Life & Death; Politics &
Ethics (graded)

There are three basic propositions in standard
Utilitarianism (Please be sure to listen to Mill’s audio lecture before joining
this threaded discussion):
1. Actions
are judged right and wrong solely on their consequences;
that is, nothing else matters except the consequence, and right actions are
simply those with the best consequences.
2. To
assess consequences, the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness and
unhappiness caused;
that is, there is only one criterion and everything else is irrelevant.
3. In calculating
happiness and unhappiness caused, nobody’s happiness counts any more than
anybody else’s;
that is, everybody’s welfare is equally important and the majority rules.
In specific cases where justice and utility
are in conflict, it may seem expedient to serve the greater happiness through
quick action that overrules consideration for justice. There is a side to
happiness that can call for rushed decisions and actions that put
decision-makers under the pressure of expediency.
Here is a dilemma for our class:
You are the elected district attorney. You
receive a phone call from a nursing home administrator who was a good friend of
yours in college. She has a waiting list of 3,000 people who will die if they
don’t get into her nursing home facility within the next 3 weeks, and she
currently has 400 patients who have asked (or their families have asked on
their behalf) for the famous Dr. Jack Kevorkian’s (fictitious) sister, Dr. Jill
Kevorkian, for assistance in helping them die. The 3,000 people on the waiting
list want to live. She (the nursing home administrator) wants to know if you
would agree to “look the other way” if she let in Dr. Jill to assist
in the suicide of the 400 patients who have requested it, thus allowing at
least 400 of the 3,000 on the waiting list in.
1. How
would we use Utilitarianism to “solve” this dilemma?
2. What
ethics did your friend, the nursing home administrator, use in deciding to call
you?
3. What
ethics are you using if you just “look the other way” and let it
happen?

dq 2

Dealing With
Emergencies and Outcomes (graded)

Chapter 9 of our text includes the terrorism
situation at the 1972 Munich Olympics, and it needs to be read before engaging
this discussion.

The principle of utility involves maximizing
happiness as a desirable outcome of decisions. Although it does not get
directly said, there is an inverse intention to minimize the undesirable
outcome of disaster. Utilitarian decisions are directed toward outcomes—that
is, the consequences of decisions.
The Olympic hostage situation was a
high-tension moment, full of dangerous surprises and strategies to deal with
the situation that did not work out for the best. Among the strategies was the
idea to kill the leader of the terrorists so as to disrupt the terrorist plot
and to allow a good outcome in which the hostages would be saved. In the
situation it was also entirely possible that a terrible outcome might occur in
which all would die. The situation was an emergency.
The German legal system might eventually take
the terrorists and their leader to trial, but first there was the need to end
the hostage situation. The account in our text ends with, “But it was the
lesser of two evils.”
As utilitarian ethicists this week, how shall
we reason through to the decision of the law enforcement authorities at the
1972 Munich Olympics?

ETHC445
Week 6 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

Applying Rand’s Objectivism (graded)

Ayn
Rand’s Objectivist philosophyhas
been touted by her detractors as the philosophy of self-interested selfishness.

Her four epistemological principles are:
1. Metaphysics: Objective reality of the world and the objects in it.
2. Epistemology: Reason as the one and only key to understanding.
3. Ethics: Self-interest in what behavior is but also what it should be.
4. Politics: Capitalism through the performance of deeds by individuals who are
self-interested.
In the early 1960’s, a student asked a
spokesman for Objectivism what would happen to the poor in an Objectivist’s
free society.
The spokesman answered, “If you want to help them, you will not be
stopped.”
If one reads Rand’s works, Atlas Shrugged, or The Fountainhead, one will conclude that
this would be the answer Ayn would have given to that student as well.
What do you conclude from the answer given by
the Objectivist spokesperson?
Is Objectivism, like Moral Relativism, the opposite of ethics?
And what clue in what she taught leads to your conclusion?

dq 2

Working Conflict
Resolution Methods (graded)

Different ways to analyze ethical behaviors
and dilemmas exist, and many of them will help direct you to the correct or
“best” solution to a problem.
As we discussed in week 1 in the “tough
choices” .pdf, sometimes right vs. right or wrong vs. wrong decisions have
to be made.
In the
lecture this week, you are given three ethical dilemma resolution models to try
out on a dilemma provided there. Please review that interactive before posting
to the threads this week, and let’s bring your questions and comments about the
“proposed” solutions here to the threads. We will talk about that
through mid-week, and then I will post a new dilemma here where we will, as a
group, begin analyzing it using the different methods.
You will need to be able to use these three
models (Blanchard and Peale, Laura Nash and Front page of the Newspaper) on the
final exam … so let’s be sure to practice all three of them together this
week.
So, to start this off, let’s address the
dilemma in the Week 6 Lecture interactive (in the middle of the page). You MUST
read the lecture and run the interactive in order to participate in the threads
this week!

1. Review
the sample solution to the Laura Nash method.

Do you agree with that analysis? If so, what parts do you think really helped
you work through the dilemma? If not, which parts do you not agree with?
2. Review
the sample solution to the Front Page of the Newspaper method.

Do you think this is one of those types of dilemmas for which this model works?
If not, why not? If so, why? How did using this method help you work through
the dilemma?
3. Review
the sample solution to the Blanchard and Peale method.

Do you agree with the analysis? If not, why not? If so, in what way did this
help you analyze this dilemma?

Pick
ONE of the above 3 questions and let’s get started.Or, respond to another student with details about why you agree
or disagree with their analysis. Feel free to kindly debate with each other. Do
not take things personally if someone disagrees. Be sure to show that you have
viewed the lecture and interactive and that you attempted an analysis for
“high quality” posts this week. After Wednesday, I will bring in
another scenario and we can analyze that one together as a class.

ETHC445
Week 7 Discussion 1 & 2 Latest 2017 March
dq 1

Applying Rand’s
Objectivism (graded)

Ayn
Rand’s Objectivist philosophyhas
been touted by her detractors as the philosophy of self-interested selfishness.

Her four epistemological principles are:
1. Metaphysics: Objective reality of the world and the objects in it.
2. Epistemology: Reason as the one and only key to understanding.
3. Ethics: Self-interest in what behavior is but also what it should be.
4. Politics: Capitalism through the performance of deeds by individuals who are
self-interested.
In the early 1960’s, a student asked a
spokesman for Objectivism what would happen to the poor in an Objectivist’s
free society.
The spokesman answered, “If you want to help them, you will not be
stopped.”
If one reads Rand’s works, Atlas Shrugged, or The Fountainhead, one will conclude that
this would be the answer Ayn would have given to that student as well.
What do you conclude from the answer given by
the Objectivist spokesperson?
Is Objectivism, like Moral Relativism, the opposite of ethics?
And what clue in what she taught leads to your conclusion?

dq 2

Working Conflict
Resolution Methods (graded)

Different ways to analyze ethical behaviors
and dilemmas exist, and many of them will help direct you to the correct or
“best” solution to a problem.
As we discussed in week 1 in the “tough
choices” .pdf, sometimes right vs. right or wrong vs. wrong decisions have
to be made.
In the
lecture this week, you are given three ethical dilemma resolution models to try
out on a dilemma provided there. Please review that interactive before posting
to the threads this week, and let’s bring your questions and comments about the
“proposed” solutions here to the threads. We will talk about that
through mid-week, and then I will post a new dilemma here where we will, as a
group, begin analyzing it using the different methods.
You will need to be able to use these three
models (Blanchard and Peale, Laura Nash and Front page of the Newspaper) on the
final exam … so let’s be sure to practice all three of them together this
week.
So, to start this off, let’s address the
dilemma in the Week 6 Lecture interactive (in the middle of the page). You MUST
read the lecture and run the interactive in order to participate in the threads
this week!

1. Review
the sample solution to the Laura Nash method.

Do you agree with that analysis? If so, what parts do you think really helped
you work through the dilemma? If not, which parts do you not agree with?
2. Review
the sample solution to the Front Page of the Newspaper method.

Do you think this is one of those types of dilemmas for which this model works?
If not, why not? If so, why? How did using this method help you work through
the dilemma?
3. Review
the sample solution to the Blanchard and Peale method.

Do you agree with the analysis? If not, why not? If so, in what way did this
help you analyze this dilemma?

Pick
ONE of the above 3 questions and let’s get started.Or, respond to another student with details about why you agree
or disagree with their analysis. Feel free to kindly debate with each other. Do
not take things personally if someone disagrees. Be sure to show that you have
viewed the lecture and interactive and that you attempted an analysis for
“high quality” posts this week. After Wednesday, I will bring in
another scenario and we can analyze that one together as a class.

ETHC445
Week 1 Quiz Latest 2017 March

Question 1. Question :
Which of the below behaviors are inappropriate
in a course?
Posting a racist comment in the threads
TYPING IN ALL CAPITAL LETTERS IN THE THREADS
Typing posts that contain poor grammar,
spelling, and no punctuation, requiring others to guess at the meaning
Postings such as this: “Can you use
spell-check or proofread, or are you just too stupid?”
All of the above
Question 2. Question :
Ethics involves issues of right and wrong, and
emotionally charged issues and ideas; thus, the best way to ensure that my
comments are taken in the way I mean them is to _____.
generalize ideas about the racial or ethnic
groups which display them
consider the impact they may have on those who
are different than me
sit quietly in the corner of the discussions
and hope that others will not ask for my input
assume that other students will value what I
value
assume that the instructor will value
everything I say or imply
Question 3. Question :
Posting in the course’s threaded discussions
is an essential element in our online, asynchronous classroom. Which of the
following is not an example of value-adding posting?
Bringing an item that has been researched on
the Internet with a quote and website link
Simply bringing an opinion statement to the
discussion with a phrase like, “Well, I think . . .” (Unsupported
opinion)
Adding wisdom to a discussion from your
personal background or expertise
Asking for clarification of the meaning of
another student’s post
Writing a response to another student’s post
by name
Question 4. Question :
Which of the following is the most appropriate
response for a student to post to another student who has posted this:
WHAT IS WRONG WITH ALL OF YOU?
YOU ARE AS STUPID AS A BOX OF ROCKS!
Answer the post very directly and with capital
letters for effect.
Send an e-mail to that student to correct him
or her.
Post an equally strong rebuttal.
Complain offline to your Student Advisor.
Ignore this and allow your instructor to
handle it – either directly with the offender or through Student Services.
Question 5. Question :
Choose from the following choices the way in
which collegiality is expressed in our course.
A certain tolerance for anger and expressions
of it in posts
Ignoring the good wisdom that students with
particular knowledge bring to the discussions
Behaving carefully so as to not cause offense
to other students or quickly take offense at others
Accusing other students of their biases and
preconceptions
Stating strong opinions and expecting others
to follow suit

ETHC445
Week 3 Quiz Latest 2017 March
1. Question :
Inductive reasoning falls into fallacy when
which of the following happens?
Hasty generalizations are made
One tries to deduce a conclusion from false
premises
One has a large enough sample set of data on
which to base inductions
Data cannot support the claims made for the
logical reasoning
One tries to work out syllogisms
Question 2. Question :
A car salesman says this, in order to get you
to buy a new car from him:
“Buddy! You gotta buy this car. You’ve
seen how you either need to drive one of these or take the bus!”
This type of faulty logic is an example of
_____.
circumlocution
the ad hominem argument
hasty generalization fallacy
the straw man fallacy
appeal to emotions
Question 3. Question :
Do you have only a few select friends or a
large circle of friends?
What fallacy is operating here?
Straw man
Appeal to fear
Ad hominem
False dilemma
Questionable statistics
Question 4. Question :
All those old people are cheap.
They never give me a fair tip when I park
their cars in the valet parking lot.
What kind of fallacy is operating here?
Straw man
Appeal to fear
Hasty generalization
Questionable statistics
Slippery slope
Question 5. Question :
Measuring our country’s health by measuring
the consumption of petroleum
is like measuring a person’s health my how
much medical care he or she buys.
What kind of fallacy is operating here?
Hasty generalization
Questionable statistics
False analogy
Invalid in form
Confusing assumptions with facts

ETHC445
Week 6 Quiz Latest 2017 March

Question 1. Question :
Ethics of the deontological school would drive
the commanding officer (CO) to make what decision?
To seek the best welfare for his sailor
To take risks of courage
To calculate the best possible outcome
To ask what virtues he seeks to honor
To do his duty under rules and procedures
Question 2. Question :
Which of the three primary schools of ethics
is operating when the commanding officer (CO) decides for medical evacuation of
the injured sailor in order to aid the most possible?
Care based
Ends based
Virtue based
Self-interest
Conscience driven
Question 3. Question :
If the CO’s conscience was bothering him while
making a decision, reading up on what ethicist would have made him aware of his
thinking and deciding?
Ayn Rand
St. Anselm
St. Thomas Aquinas
John Locke
John Stuart Mill
Question 4. Question :
What virtue is not shown if the CO shows
unwillingness to contact the carrier air group commander about the welfare of
his sailor because of fear?
Procrastination
Selfishness
The virtue of courage
Wisdom
Moderation
Question 5. Question :
The maxim “I uphold only the ethical view
that all rational beings ought uphold” follows _____.
Utilitarian ethics
An Aristotelian moderation of virtue
A strong application of care-based ethics
Kant’s categorical imperative in the first
formulation
Care-based ethics
Question 6. Question :
The CO’s practice of moderation in not taking
excessive risks connects him with what concept of ethics?
Aquinas’ concept of conscience
James’ pragmatism
Aquinas’ concept of natural ethics
Mill’s utilitarianism
Aristotle’s doctrine of the mean
Question 7. Question :
To ask, “What is the best possible
outcome for my whole ship” is to apply what kind of ethics?
Social contract
Utilitarianism
Deontological ethics
Being caught in a dilemma
Ethics of the mean
Question 8. Question :
To think, “What can this do for my
reputation when I come up for selection as admiral,” is an example of what
kind of ethics?
Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative.
John Locke’s social contract.
Ayn Rand’s objectivism.
Augustine’s doctrine of sin.
A social contract with the crew.
Question 9. Question :
For the CO to consider what the crew as a
whole would want for handling the situation involves what kind of ethics?
Sphere of influence
Utilitarian ethics
Majority thinking
The principle of equity
Care-based ethics
Question 10. Question :
A decision to ask the injured seaman what he
wants to happen is what kind of ethics?
Care-based ethics
The prudent mariner approach
Utilitarian ethics
The ethics of self-interest
The CO’s duty

ETHC445
Week 1 Ethics Paper Latest 2017 March
Assignments
Consider the ethical dilemma given below. Write an ethics paper
about it, including all the following information and analysis:
1. Solve
the dilemma usingany twoof the following Three
Primary Schools of Ethics we discuss this week from our assigned reading. (Ends
based, Rules based, or Care based).
2. Explain
the similarities and differences in your two solutions to the same dilemma.
3. State
(and justify) whether you feel the two schools of ethics are worthy of use in
“real life” dilemmas.
4. Do you
feel that Aristotle would have approved of either of your solutions? Why or why
not?
Please note that your ethics papers this
term will be a great practice for you in doing the Final Exam. Your final exam
is an essay exam which will follow a very similar format to the homework
assignments…so please be sure to spend some time doing your readings and
applying them to your written assignments.
Your papers should be about two typed
pages, double spaced. Use the DeVry standard format for the paper (the title
page and citation pages do not count among the two pages). Please organize your
thoughts, use headings, and create readable documents with grammar and spelling
checked.
The Dilemma will be your choice from
either of the two following:
Choice 1:Over
the past few decades, a sizable industry has arisen to serve the demand for
ready-made and even customized compositions and term papers. Many students
presumably believe there is nothing morally wrong with the practice of buying
one of these papers and turning it in to fulfill a course requirement. Review
what you read about plagiarism in this chapter. Then write a several-paragraph
explanation of its message for a friend who doesn’t get it. (Be sure to follow
the approach explained in that section so you avoid committing plagiarism
yourself).
Choice 2:A
married couple, both addicted to drugs, are unable to care for their infant
daughter. She is taken from them by court order and placed in a foster home.
The years pass. She comes to regard her foster parents as her real parents.
They love her as they would their own daughter. When the child is 9 years old,
the natural parents, rehabilitated from drugs, begin court action to regain
custody. The case is decided in their favor. The child is returned to them,
against her will. Does ethics support the law in this case? Discuss.
We recommend you wait until at least Thursday to begin working
on this assignment so you can include the information we are learning in the
threads and in our readings in your thought processes. Write your answer and
save it in a Word document, entitled,”YourLastnameEthicsWeek1.docx.”
e.g. Julius Caesar would turn in a document named”CaesarEthicsWeek1.docx”

ETHC445 Week 2 Ethics Paper 2017 March

Assignments
Choose one ethical dilemma from each group
Group A:A newspaper columnist signs a contract
with a newspaper chain. Several months later she is offered a position with
another newspaper chain at a higher salary. Because she would prefer making
more money, she notifies the first chain that she is breaking her contract. The
courts will decide the legality of her action. But what of the morality? Did
the columnist behave ethically?
An airline pilot goes for his regular medical checkup. The
doctor discovers that he has developed a heart murmur. The pilot only has a
month to go before he is eligible for retirement. The doctor know this and
wonders whether, under these unusual circumstances, she is justified in
withholding the information about the pilot’s condition.
Group B:An office worker had a record of frequent
absence. He used all his vacation and sick leave days and frequently requested
additional leave without pay. His supervisor and co-workers expressed great
frustration because his absenteeism caused bottlenecks in paperwork, created
low morale in the office, and required others to do his work in addition to
their own. On the other hand, he felt he was entitled to take his earned time
and additional time off without pay. Was he right?
Rhonda enjoys socializing with fellow employees at work, but
their discussion usually consists of gossiping about other people, including
several of her friends. At first Rhonda feels uncomfortable talking in this way
about people she is close to, but then she decided it does no real harm and she
feels no remorse for joining in.
Please wait until at least Thursday to begin working on this
assignment so you can include the information we are learning in the threads
and in our readings in your thought processes.
Parameters for writing this paper:
1. Answer
the questions raised in the problems above. You will have two separate sections
to your paper, one on each separate question in your chosen group. You do not
have to write an “English class” style paper this week. Answer each
problem separately.
2. While
writing your answers, incorporate the ideas of “good vs. evil,”
“wrong vs. right,” and “ought/should be vs. what is.”
3. Explain
in your answer to each problem how Augustine and Aquinas would have solved the
problem based on what we learned about each here in the materials and course,
and if they differ, why?
4. Your
two sets of answers should be about two pages, double spaced.
Write your answer and save it in aWorddocument,
entitled”YourLastnameEthicsWeek2.docx.”For
example, Christopher Columbus would turn in a document named”ColumbusEthicsWeek2.docx.”

ETHC445 Week 3 Ethics Paper 2017 March
Assignments
Consider these three problems. In writing a paper about all
three of them individually, identify the consequences of the actions taken, and
then determine whether the actions taken represented a greater good, who would
benefit from the good, and whether the consequences ethically justify the
decisions and actions.
The Mayor of a large city was given a free membership in an
exclusive golf club by people who have received several city contracts. He also
accepted gifts from organizations that have not done business with the City but
might in the future. The gifts ranged from $200 tickets to professional sports
events to designer watches and jewelry.
A college instructor is pursuing her doctorate in night school.
To gain extra time for her own studies, she gives her students the same
lectures, the same assignments, and the same examinations semester after
semester without the slightest effort to improve them.
Todd and Edna have been married for three years. They have had
serious personal problems. Edna is a heavy drinker, and Todd cannot keep a job.
Also, they have bickered and fought constantly since their marriage. Deciding
that the way to overcome their problems is to have a child, they stop
practicing birth control, and Edna becomes pregnant.
Using what you have learned from our discussions and readings up
to this week, write an answer to all three parts. How would Locke have
addressed or solved the problem? Explain how his ethics and the answer he may
have given are different or the same as yours.
Be sure to complete your readings before beginning this
assignment. The paper length should be about two pages double spaced. Write
your answer and save it in a Word document, entitled,
“YourLastnameEthicsWeek3.docx.”
We recommend you wait until at least Thursday to begin working
on this assignment so you can include the information we are learning in the
threads and in our readings in your thought processes. Write your answer and
save it in a Word document, entitled,”YourLastnameEthicsWeek1.docx.”
For example, Sir Isaac Newton would turn in a document named”NewtonEthicsWeek3.docx.

ETHC445 Week 4 Ethics Paper 2017 March
Assignments
Using web based research, find an environmental-based ethical
dilemma from the past five years online. (You can use a news story, an internet
article, a law case, or anything from a governmental database for this
assignment.) Then, using this story as a foundation for your dilemma:

Create
a 2-4 paragraph “dilemma” similar to the other dilemmas you have
been solving throughout this term.
Solve
the dilemma using Kant’s ethics (Categorical Imperative).
Solve
the dilemma using any other method we have discussed to date (with which
you agree.)
State
which resolution (Kant’s or the other one you chose) you prefer and why.

(It is possible that one or more of these dilemmas you write may
become future exam questions for this course, so keep that in mind while you
write the dilemma.)
This assignment should be about two typed pages, double-spaced.
You MUST provide the source of the dilemma, and thus this paper will require at
least one “reference.” Use APA format in citing the source, and let
me know if you have questions on how to do that.
Write your answer and save it in a Word document, entitled,”YourLastnameEthicsWeek4.docx.”
e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger would turn in a document named”SchwarzeneggerEthicsWeek4.docx.”

ETHC445 Week 5 Ethics Paper 2017 March
Assignments
The “You Decide” tab to the left presents a difficult
and painful dilemma to you in an imagined professional role. Go through the You
Decide presentation, make the decision it calls for, and write your weekly
paper to make your decision and explain, in the given format, your reasoning
and justification for it.
Your dilemma is that you have to make a painful medical decision
and to explain, in writing, who benefits from what you decided, who gets denied
a needed benefit, and why. The document is to be in the form of an official
memorandum that will be kept for the record and could be potentially read by
not only your Peer Review Committee, but also possibly those involved in
charitable fundraising to support hospital development and others with
financial interests in the choice made.
You will see in the You Decide tab that there is time pressure
in the simulated situation to make your decision, so remember that you would
not have the luxury to dawdle in the decision-making process, and as the
decision-maker, you would not have the luxury of consulting others. It all
falls on YOU!
Include in the document the utilitarian ethical philosophy of
John Stuart Mill (from the lecture and audio for this week) and ONE OTHER
ETHICAL PHILOSOPHER of your choice that we have studied to date, and use both
of those philosophies to bolster your decision. This paper will be at least two
double spaced pages but limited to three pages. Remember both professional
written form and potential audience, as well as tone when writing this
sensitive paper.
You may want to wait until at least Thursday to begin working on
this assignment so you can include the information we are learning in the
threads and in our readings in your thought processes.
Write your answer and save it in a Word document, entitled,”YourLastnameEthicsWeek5.docx.”
For example,Dr. Christian Barnard,who performed the first heart
transplant surgery, would turn in a document named”BarnardEthicsWeek5.docx.”
This problem may take more than a few paragraphs to answer. I
would think that about two pages should cover this. You may include a reference
to up to two outside sources, if properly documented.Outside
sources are NOT required.

ETHC445 Final Exam 2017 March

Question 1. 1. (TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that
the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the
patient’s direction reflects what type of ethics? (Points : 5)
Hobbes’ State of Nature
Rand’s Objectivism
Aristotle’s concept of Virtue
Thomas Aquinas’ concept of conscience
Socrates’ concept of excellence
Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the
moral ideal of justice? (Points : 5)
Acts of mercy beyond what is required
Making decisions in order to build friendships
Meeting legal requirements
Evaluation of situations according to their
merits
Meeting the terms of the Social Contract
Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 2) One of the common
errors in Ethics is unwarranted assumptions. Unwarranted assumptions consist of
what? (Points : 5)
Preconceptions before ethical dilemmas are
confronted
Failing to read carefully and with attention
to detail
Taking too much for granted
Speculating apart from information
Treating case studies carelessly
Question 4. 4. (TCO 2) Prescriptive language
is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5)
To indicate what is prohibited or impossible
To indicate that one choice is better than
others
To show what actions are legal
To convey requirements and obligations
To indicate that there are really no choices
available
Question 5. 5. (TCOs 7, 8) Each person ought
to do whatever will best promote his or her own interests. (Points : 5)
Utilitarianism
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Social Contract Theory
Ethical Egoism
Gilligan
Question 6. 6. (TCOs 2, 4, 9) Free people are
motivated toward forming social structures according to a social contract in
order to overcome what problem identified by Thomas Hobbes? (Points : 5)
The need to overcome disagreements
A perpetual state of warfare
The establishment of a monarchy
Taxation to support the costs of government
Organized ways to select leaders
Question 7. 7. (TCOs 3, 6) The Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a
governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists.
Their actions include which of the following? (Points : 5)
Subpoena regulation offenders
Monitor situations of environmental concern
Fine offenders
Sponsor new legislation on environmental
issues
All of the above.
Question 8. 8. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) The notion that
the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom?
(Points : 5)
St. Thomas Aquinas
Socrates
John Locke
Immanuel Kant
Oliver Cromwell
Question 9. 9. (TCOs 8, 9) John Stuart Mill’s
theory of Utilitarianism is the most common form of ethics in use today. It is
used so commonly because it belongs to which of the Primary Schools of Ethics?
(Points : 5)
Care-based
Ends-based
Economy-based
Law-based
Efficiency-based
Question 10. 10. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) What is the purpose
of proving whether a syllogism of formal logic is “valid”? (Points : 5)
To identify the connecting phrase “therefore”
or a synonym of it before proceeding further
To determine whether the situation described
is accurate
To determine whether the premises are true
before continuing
To determine whether the conclusion proceeds
from the premises
To determine that there are only two premise
statements in the syllogism
Question 11. 11. (TCOs 1, 2) Different from
normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5)
Problems are much more complicated
When one choice is chosen, the opportunity for
the others is lost
Problems are much more urgent
Problems are so much more real and less
theoretical
Problems usually involve not honoring our own
virtues
Question 12. 12. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) According to
Thomas Aquinas, what ethical capacity do people of every culture naturally
possess? (Points : 5)
Logical thinking
Personal virtues
Self-interest
Ability to learn lessons
Conscience
Question 13. 13. (TCOs 2, 8) The single
criterion for making decisions in objectivist ethics is what? (Points : 5)
Professional development
Personal self-interest
The physical environment
Financial gain
The close group of family and friends who will
be impacted
Question 14. 14. (TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view
of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in
which of these concepts? (Points : 5)
Locke’s notion of the natural state of man
Rawls’ notion of the veil of ignorance
Aristotle’s notion of the doctrine of the mean
Hammurabi’s code of law
Hobbes’ state of nature
Question 15. 15. (TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant’s concern
that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through
what actions? (Points : 5)
Their habits
Their maxims
Their desires
Their loves
Their loyalties
Question 16. 16. (TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal
development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of
virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)
Plato
Aristotle
Luther
Augustine
Socrates
Question 17. 17. (TCOs 2, 8) Professional
codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5)
Allow businesses to avoid training
professional staffers
Enable transfer of valued employees across
state lines
Enable contracting of temporary employees
Specify continuing education needs and
requirements
Providing assurance of the professional
qualifications of members
Question 18. 18. (TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s
Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included
the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it.
If the virtue is GENEROSITY, and the excess is
WASTEFULNESS, what is the deficiency?
(Points : 5)
Carefulness
There is no deficiency
Being broke (having no money)
Stinginess
Moderation
Question 19. 19. (TCOs 8, 9) In personal or
organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or
consultant employees one of the ethical conflict resolution models of Week 6?
(Points : 5)
Objectives of what winning the conflict means
get refined and better understood
Conflict management gets slowed down and
settled.
Conflict can be handled in a sequential,
step-by-step manner
Parties can be reconciled without solving the
issues
Personal relationships can be separated from
issues
Question 20. 20. (TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a
priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a
posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience.
What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a priori
manner? (Points : 5)
Utilitarian ethics
Objectivist ethics
Deontological ethics
Political ethics
Scientific ethics

1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and
in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded
discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to
you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course.
Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized
statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of
the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement
through brief applications and cases.
Use your ethical philosophy to solve the
following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your
decision.
Should citizens have an ethical obligation to
serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it
ethical for a person to refuse to serve?
A significant number of people believe war is
always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation’s taking up arms
against another. Is this view ethically sound? How about realistically? Please
state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position
using your ethical position statement.
In answering, be sure to look at both sides of
war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong
country coming to the aid of a weaker country that has been attacked unjustly.
Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this
problem.
(Points : 30) Spellchecker
Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the
following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation
and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the
“issues” are, and how an “ethical” person would resolve
them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you reach a conclusion
about how to resolve or analyze this situation.
As a result of the economic down-turn starting
in 2008, efficiency has become more and more the byword of the successful
business person. The axioms of the efficiency expert are: “Eliminate what
need not be done; simplify what must be done; combine tasks wherever
possible.”
Putting this into practice means, among other
things, eliminating people’s jobs. Sometimes it also means making one person do
two or three people’s jobs. As company’s gain the upper hand in employment
(when the number of employees wanting good jobs is higher than the number of
good (i.e. high paying) jobs available), they will more and more expect
employees to be willing to work longer hours and to do accomplish more and
varied tasks.
1. Under what circumstances is it ethical
business practices to ask employees to multi-task or do more than one person’s
job?
2. Under what circumstances is it ethical for
an employee to refuse to do more work than can be taken on in a conventional
40-45 hours per week?
3. Let’s assume that it is BECAUSE employees
are willing to multi-task and do two or three people’s jobs, that others LOSE
their jobs. Who is more at fault ethically? The employer who requests the extra
work from the remaining employees? Or the employees who are willing to do the
extra work, thereby putting the others who aren’t willing out of work?
Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel
Immanuel Kant would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the
same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the
similarities or differences. (Points : 40)
Question 4. 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) Regina is
chairperson of her city’s United Fund campaign. In her annual preparations
meeting with her staff of canvassers, she gives this advice: “Hit the
business places first. Don’t approach anyone who is walking alone in a hall or
working alone in a closed office. Look for two or more people standing together
or working side by side. Try to make them compete with each other in generous
giving. Capitalize on their desire to show off and outdo the next person.”
She then states that the canvasser who raises the most money of all will be
awarded with a 5% cut of the total amount that canvasser raises. Her approach
pays off and the United Fund raises the most money ever.
Tell what ethical philosophy Regina is using,
if any.
Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze
the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this
situation either the same way as the character in the situation did, or
differently. Why?
Question 5. 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You are a new employee
in an advertising company. Your client is a well known soup manufacturer who
wants to feature in advertisements a picture showing the solid ingredients in
its soup. Unfortunately, your advertising group found that the solid
ingredients sank to the bottom of the bowl and were barely visible. All that
could be seen was the broth. Your boss hits upon a solution–put marbles in the
bottom of the bowl before pouring in the soup! You try it and the vegetables
sit nicely on the top, giving the appearance of thick soup. Your boss wants you
to run with the project with this solution.
What will you do? Explain why you will do this
and what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion.
Question 6. 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer
above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model.
Show your steps. (Points : 40)

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