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How does energy flow through the environment?Make-UpPre-Laboratory Questions: (2 pts)1. Define the terms autotroph, heterotroph, and niche. (1 pt)2. Distinguish between a food chain and a food web. Why would each be a valuable tool for biologists? (1pt)Introduction:The study of ecology looks at the interactions between organisms as well as between organisms and theirenvironment. An important aspect of those interactions is energy flow. Energy in biological systems startsfrom only one source – the sun. The process of passing energy from one organism to another, however, is veryinefficient. Only about 10% of the energy an organism consumes is available for use and growth.Objectives• To understand the efficiency of energy flow through an ecosystem.• To understand how various trophic levels interconnect.• To understand how invasive species may affect an ecosystem.PART 1: Energy Flow (2 pts)Energy flow up a food chain tends to be only about 10% efficient, that is, only about 10% of the energyconsumed in a food source can be utilized for extra activities such as growth and reproduction. Examine thefood chain below representing the amount of biomass (total mass of living material) in an ecosystem.!*+,-.!/0+!.12,+0!-030+!!!H6/!F,[email protected]+0.!9E,..G!8,3B?.CG!.D,//?D;!32+3:0.=!"#$!!!F,[email protected]+0.!9E:20;?::G!B+6;.=!%)![email protected][email protected]+30E+,30.G!32+3:0.=!! %("! 5+67280+.!9,:;,0!<!;+,..0.=! %%&’! 4!! >[email protected]+0.!98+,AB?.C=!,D7!>086-/6.0+.!9E,830+?,=!1. What would you expect to happen if half of the algae (per mass) were to die in this community? (1 pt)2. What would happen if, under the right conditions, there was an explosion of bluegill reproduction, with anexceptional number of juveniles added to the population? (1 pt)PART 2: Producers and Consumers (4.5 pts)3. Below in Table 1 is a list of 20 organisms representing a community. Begin by identifying each as anautotroph, heterotroph, or N/A. (1 pt)4. On a separate sheet of paper, arrange the 20 organisms into a food web. In doing so, you will draw arrowsin the direction of energy flow from one organism to another representing the relationships involved. (2 pts)5. Is it possible for an organism to have multiple arrows going to or from it? Explain your answer. (0.5 pt) 6. Identify at least one example from your food web for each of the following relationships: (1 pt total)• Mutualism: Both species benefit from the relationship• Commensalism: One species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped by the relationship• Predation: One species benefits while the other is harmed in the relationship• Competition: Both species are harmed by the relationshipPART 3: Invasive Species (5.5 pts)7. Table 2 contains a new set of organisms, from which you will complete a second food web on another sheetof paper. (1.5 pts)8. Speculate what would happen if zebra mussels were introduced into the community. Do a quick internetsearch to find out some information about zebra mussels. What would be their effect on other species?Explain, and be specific about the effect for at least 5 other species in this community. (2 pts)9. If the population of frogs and salamanders were to crash due to habitat destruction (as is happening in Ohioright now), what would be the effect on the community? Explain your answer, giving specific examples insupport. (1 pts)10. List at least three characteristics that might make an invasive species particularly successful? (1 pt)11. Speculate on at least three activities that humans do that promote the introduction of invasive species. (1 pt)Study Questions (4 pts)1. Why is the world not full of top predators, such as lions, tigers, and killer whales? (1 pt)2. A complicating factor of pollutants in the environment (like the pesticide DDT) is the idea ofbiomagnification, or the accumulation of pollutants and their effects in organisms higher up the food chain.a. Explain why individuals at the top of the food chain may be at higher risk for the toxic effects ofpollutants. (1 pt)3. Is it possible for an organism or species to change its niche? Explain your answer, and if it is possible, whatwould be the consequences to the food web? (1 pt)4. What happens to the chemicals within molecules such as glucose once decomposers have broken it downthrough respiration? (1 pt)5. How could two species that prey on the same type of food survive in the same habitat? Is it possible at all?(1 pt) Table 1 Organism ListSpecies Description 1 Sun External Energy Source 2 Bald Eagle Detritivore / Carnivore 3 Cardinal Omnivore 4 Bullfrog Insectivore 5 Bluegill Insectivore / Carnivore 6 White-tailed Deer Herbivore 7 Mayfly Omnivore 8 Grasshopper Herbivore 9 Chipmunk Omnivore 10 Buckeye Tree Primary Producer 11 Big Blue Stem Grass Primary Producer 12 Cherry Tree Primary Producer 13 American Burying Beetle Detritivore 14 Rabbit Herbivore 15 Wolverine Carnivore 16 Coyote Carnivore 17 Mushroom Decomposer / Detritivore 18 Detritus Dead Stuff 19 Barn Swallow Insectivore 20 Honeybee Herbivore 1 Table 2 Food Web ListSunExternal Energy Source 2 Coontail Producer 3 Phytoplankton Producer 4 Snail Herbivore 5 Mayfly Herbivore 6 Shad Detritivore / Planktivore 7 Mallard Duck Insectivore / Herbivore 8 Canada Goose Insectivore / Herbivore 9 Oligochaete (worm) Detritivore 10 Gammarus Herbivore 11 Daphnia Herbivore / Planktivore 12 Leech Parasite (Carnivore) 13 Crayfish Carnivore / Detritivore 14 Freshwater Mussel Planktivore 15 Yellow Perch Carnivore / Planktivore 16 Water Snake Carnivore 17 Bluegill Insectivore / Planktivore 18 Great Blue Heron Carnivore 19 Muskie Carnivore 20 Smallmouth Bass Carnivore 21 Lilly pads Producer 22 Bladderwort Producer / Carnivore 23 Duckweed Producer 24 Mosquito Larvae Herbivore / Planktivore 25 Mudpuppy Carnivore 26 Detritus Dead Stuff

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